[From Manx Soc vol 2, Kelly's Manx Grammar]



The nominative cases of verbs, whether placed before or after their verbs, preserve their radical initials: as dooyrt dooinney, a man said; she dooinney dooyrt rhym, 'twas a man told me.

Nouns come after verbs of filling with the preposition lesh, with: as t'eh lhieeney yn thie lesh boirey, he filleth the house with contention.

Verbs of abounding have ayns: as gaase ayns creenaght, growing in wisdom; bishagh ayns cooid, abounding with goods.

Of agreeing and speaking to, have rish, to, or with: as choard mee rish, I agreed with him; dooyrt mee rish, I said to him.

Of accusing, have son, for: as t'eh plaiynt er son dunverys, he accuseth him of murder.

Of arraying, have lesh, with: as coodagh lesh argid, covering with silver; coamrit lesh purple, clothed in purple.

Of asking and intreating, have jeh, of, and veigh, from: as hir mee veih'n dooinney my chair, I entreated the man for my right; denee mee jeh'n dooinney, cre'n naight? I asked the man, what news?

Of buying, have veih: as ta mee kionnaghey cooid veih'n marchan, I am buying goods from the merchant.

Of calling upon, have er, upon: as deïe mee er cooney, I called for help.

Of communicating, have da, to, or gys, to: as hoilshee mee da, or gys my naboo, I signified to my neighbour.

Of defending and delivering, have veih, or voish: as livrey mee veih olk, deliver me from evil; coadee mee voish y noid, protect me from the enemy.

Of waiting, have rish, to: as duirree mee rish sheshaght, I waited for company.

Of hearkening, have rish: as deaisht mee rish choud's oddin, I listened to him as long as I could.

Of loading, have lesh: as lhieen ym eh lesh feeyn, I will fill him with wine; laad mee eh lesh argid, I loaded him with silver.

Of receiving, have voish, or veih: as hooar mee eh voish Lunnin, I received it from London.

Of separating, have rish: as scarr mee rish my ven, I divorced my wife.

When a question is asked in the present tense, the answer is made by the same tense of the same verb: as Vel oo goll thie? are you going home? Ta mee goll. Or the answer may be made affirmatively by ta, yes, or I am; and negatively by cha nel, or vel, no, or I am not, thou art not, he, &c., is not.

If the question be in the preterperfect tense, the answer is made, if affirmative, by ren, or va; if negative, by cha ren, or row; or otherwise by repeating the verb, if an affirmative answer; but if negative, by repeating the verb, and putting cha before it, as Nagh dooyrt y dooinney shen? did not the man say so? Dooyrt, or, negatively, cha dooyrt.

When a question is asked in the future tense, the answer is made by the same tense, or by the future, nee'n, I will do: as Jed oo thie? will you go home? Hed-ym, I will go, or nee'm.


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Any comments, errors or omissions gratefully received The Editor
HTML Transcription © F.Coakley , 2001