[From Manx Note Book vol 3]

The Manx Runic Inscriptions Re-read


HERE ARE TWO LEGENDS ON THIS CROSS, IN TWO LINES: one long line (the whole length of the stone-running up the back close to the edge on the right as you face the writing) which contains the historical legend - and one short line (on the left hand side of the back, beginning also at the bottom) which contains a motto or proverb.

The historical legend is as follows:-

 "Mal-Lumcun [i.e., Mael-Lomchon] raised this cross to the memory of Mal-Muru his foster-mother, daughter of Dufgal, the woman whom Athisl had to wife."

The motto is :-
"Better it is to leave a goodfoster son than a bad son."

The stone is to the memory of a lady named Mael- Muru, Mael-Lomchon's foster-mother; her husband was Athlsl. One surmises that at her death she was a widow hence it fell to the foster-son to raise the monument. There is a family secret here from which the veil can never be drawn ; but there are three possibilities: either from vain complacency in his own merit he alludes to his virtuous character : or, there really was a son who was unworthy and undutiful, and it was the fosterson who did the last pious acts for her whom the son should have honoured: or, Mael-Lomchon raised the monument, but probably did not himself carve the runes, and the workman added this sentence, as his own judgment of the foster-son's piety ; and this is probably the true explanation of the motto.

Mael, prefixed to a woman's name, strikes one as unusual ; but there is no escape, for both the names (subject and object) have it. Analogy is met with in the Icelandic Book of Settlement, "Landnama-boc," where we find the Irish princess, Mel-corca, Olaf Peacock's mother, famed in the Icelandic Sagas.

The peculiarities of this cross are as follows :-In the alphabet N instead of ! , used for s ; the t is double-twigged T)' instead of left-hand twigged only like the other Manx crosses; the only b of the inscription is now lost, but there is little doubt that it was not the peculiar Manx letter (1), but the ordinary Scandinavian B : the ends of the slanting cross strokes in ~ *~ are marked with a deep dot, and one has to be careful not to confound these with the usual dots between the words.

As to language : what strikes one at once is that we are in a transition period between the old and new in grammar. The writer confounds the subjective with the oblique case in doter (daughter), just as is done in modern Icelandic; and the masculine form fostra is used instead of the feminine fostro, although sina is feminine. These, taken together with the dotted i (i ), shew that we have here by no means the oldest of the Manx Runic Crosses.

Another peculiarity is the form of the word þan in the shorter sentence, which in some of the readings hitherto given is entirely omitted ; it is the only instance in the whole range of old Norse literature of the initial þ being retained in this word; and it must be accounted for in this instance by English influence (which must always have been felt in the Isle of Mann), rather than by antiquity, for the initial þ dropped out of this word in the North as early at least as the VIIth or IXth century. Another archaic form — es for er (the Norse form of the Xljth century) — is also due to the same cause-proximity to England, and probably the latter never obtained in the Isle of Mann.

The inscription is complete and legible throughout, with the exception of the two first letters — BE — of the short line, which are lost, through one corner of the slab being broken off.

The inscriptions were de.ciphered and copied by George Borrow, an accurate painstaking man, it appears, more than fifty years ago, before the stone was built into its present position; and we were told by an old inhabitant how she remembered him poring over the stone for quite a week, being puzzled with its peculiarities ; but at last one day he called out to her brother that he had settled it, and that it was clearly a Manxman's monument, for it had the Manx name Malmuru, which he identified with Mylworrey, now anglicised into Morrison.* All this the fifty intervening years had not erased from her memory, and the reading is there on the stone to prove her accuracy. (* Manx Surnames, No. 4, P. 132.)

We found the cross (30th September, 1886), erect on the top of the churchyard wall, the lower end for two feet completely immured in the masonry, leaving only the last word of the shorter legend and nearly two-thirds of the larger one, visible above the coping of the wall.

Mr. Cumming knew the legends as read by Mr. Borrow, but he did not know that the two sentences belonged to the same cross; when he came to examine it, the cross was built into the wall as we found it ; he assumed that the two visible portions belonged to one legend; seeing the last word of the shorter one-ilan-on his left just above the wall, and noticing that some portion of the longer one was hidden, he imagined that it was to be read "downwards, horizontally, and upwards," and that the word to his left was the first word of the inscription ; he read it back wards — nali — and, changing the position of the i, arrived at Nial — hence "Nial Lumcun"; and what to him was hidden he supplied from copies extant.

On examining the stone, it was soon seen that ilan was the true reading, and this was at once by us recognised as the last word of the lost legend. The Vicar was consulted, a Churchwarden (who is himself a builder) was found, and soon the work of removing the masonry began, and inch by inch the whole of the back of the stone was exposed, showing the two legends in parallel lines. Thus they are now known for the first time in their proper connection, and the true reading of the inscription is settled.




 Druian the son of Dufgal raised this cross to the memory of Cathmaoil his wife."

This legend is written along the edge of a thin slab. The cross is a small one, so that the letters are packed very closely together, some of the words are abbreviated. and a few word-divisions are omitted. The downstrokes are deep and clear, but, owing probably to the closeness of the letters, the distinguishing cross-strokes at the top are exceedingly small and very high up; moreover, the edge of the slab at the top of the letters is considerably worn, apparently by use as a step, so that a few of the letters are rendered uncertain, only the long strokes remalning. The first letter in the first word (T) and the first and last letters in his wife's name (C L) are thus more or less obliterated; the fourth letter in the first name must needs be an i, for there is no middle-twlg5 and, though a little worn at the top, it is not enough so to allow of any top twig having ever been there: the first letter certainly had a twig at the top, either c or T, we believe t- 1 (i.e., d). We have little doubt as to the correctness of the reading given above.

Assuming that the two Dufgals, at Kirk Michael and Kirk Bride, are identical, it would follow that Drulan, of Kirk Bride, was the brother of Malmuru of Kirk Michael. We should have then the following pedigree, all the names — save Athisl (Eadgils) — being strictly Celtic or non-Norse :

     |               |
       |              |    
      The bad son    MAEL- LOMCHON 
	  (name unknown) The foster son
* Manx Surnames, NO. 7, P. 116	  




This legend consists of two clauses: the second clause must begin with the word SIN.

" Mal Bricti † the Smith, son of Athacan, raised this cross for his own soul. His surety-friend Gout worked this (cross) and all in Mann."

Smiþ almost certainly refers to Malbricti, and not to Athacan ; if it referred to Athacan it would be in the possessive case, and the possessive s is never elsewhere dropped, whilst the nominative r often times is. "Smith" was used in old days not only for a worker in iron, but for a workman at any craft, especially shipbuilding ; in fact it is equivalent to the word "wright," and it is natural that it should be recorded on the monument, as it was held to be an important and honorable employment.

† Manx Surnames, No. 6, P. 93.

The second letter in the artist's name we take to be o rather than a — Gout ; on being the current Norse form of the diphthong an in the XIIth and XIIIth centuries.

The difficult word BRUCUIN is quite clear as to reading, but not so clear as to meaning. It is possible that r and u have become transposed through indistinct pronunciation, which is not uncommon in Runic inscriptions; thus it would be BURG-VIN=BORG-VIN, surety-friend-a law term of the old Manx-Norse; for elsewhere we have never met with that word.

This is the only cross which is stated to have been raised by any one for himself. One guesses that Mal Bricti had no near relatives alive, and that on his death bed he commissioned his "surety friend" Gout to act as his executor, and to erect this cross, which was thus a kind of "Absalom's pillar." Gout here puts on record his faithful performance of the trust, and, with pardonable pride in his artistic handiwork, he takes the opportunity of alluding to its wide extent-"Gout made this and all in Mann."


(N raised this cross) to the memory of Ufaac [O'Faac] his Father.
But Gaut the Son of Biorn of Culi worked it."

The spelling here slightly differs from the Mal-Bricti cross. The second letter of the artist's name Is a in this case, and he retains the nominative termination r, which in the other is dropped. Again in saunr, au represents ao sound, exactly as on the other cross at Kirk Michael maun~maon; indicating that the old native name of the Isle in the Norse time was not Man but Maon, or approximately Mon. The last word but one -fra-is somewhat damaged; but by damping the stone, and after very careful and repeated examinations (thrice repeated), the reading given above was clearly deciphered. Culi must be a place-name, and " fra culi" is the true Norse mode of expression, denoting Biorn's property and residence. On the Mal Bricti cross it is stated that Gout was the executor, to whom was entrusted the raising of the cross. We may assume that Mal-Bricti lived at Kirk Michael, as his cross is found there : it is most probable from his connection with Mal-Bricti, that Gout also belonged to that parish. On this Andreas cross we have the name of the family farm-Culi. It is neither unreasonable nor far-fetched to identify this with Cooley in Kirk Michael, and thus we can explain why the north of the Island is so very rich in crosses.



(Ma)lfiaac raised this cross to the memory of Ufaac [i.e., O'Faacl the Son of Crinaa."

The beginning of the legend is lost, but the L is certain, and there can be llttle doubt that the version given above is corred. Ufaac seems to stand for U-faac = O'Flaac ; it is of a certainty no Norse name. The last letter but one in the last word is also somewhat obscure, but A seems to be the true reading; the cross stroke of the second a is faint, though visible, and stands higher up, not on one level with the preceding.lb


1. In the old Churchyard at Ballaugh:


Aulaib [i.e., Olaf] the Son of Liutwolf [i.e., Leod-wolf] ra(ised) this (cr)oss to the memory of Wolf his Son.

All three names have hitherto been wrongly read.

The first rune is clearly ~ = O. OU would represent a diphthongal sound intermediate between the pronunciation of the vowels in house and home. Oulalb is one of the many forms of the famous Norse name Olaf; which in different places and at different times has undergone strange transformations. This form is however unique, and is interesting as the parent to the Scotch Auliffe (Aulelf, Aulei). The second name, Liutwolf, is one of the compound names on Leod (now common in McLeod, Corlett). Liutwolf once occurs in the Book of Settlement as one of the settlers in Iceland ; he may have come from the Western Islands, or from the Isle of Mann. This liot, however, is no relation to Old Norse liot (ugly), but is the same as Old Teutonic leòd people; strange to say this t runs through the whole of the Leod names in Iceland (Liò)t-unn, Llot-ulf, Þórliòt), and here we find it too in the Isle of Mann. These names, though Teutonic, cannot therefore have come direa from Scandinavia, but by some foreign route. In the third nameWolf the L is clearly seen on the flat circular band at the head of the cross, the inscription being continued within the depression formed between the circle and the arms of the cross. The UN in the word Sun, to save space, are written in one. The word divisions are placed exactly as given above, and are formed with three dots instead of two

In spelling, we may mention LB for LF twice; and B for F in the name Oulaib; the only instance within our experience. judging from spelling and form, we should be inclined to take this to be one of the earliest, if not the very earliest, of the Manx crosses.

IJ. On the next cross, the large one at Kirk Michael, we take the first name to be the same-Olaf; but the form of the legend points to a later date. Olaf, having been a royal name in the Isle of Mann, must have been common.


Olaf, the son of Thorwolf the Red, raised this cross to the memory of Fritha his mother."

On the Ballaugh cross, Wolf is clearly a family name, Olaf's father was Liutwolf, and his son was called Wolf. On this Kirk Michael cross, we find also Olaf's father with the same distinctive form-Thorwolf. These slight coincidences frequently denote family connealons; and from this, and the proximity of the crosses, in neighbouring parishes, we may surmise that the two Olafs belonged to the same family, but to different generations.


I. The upper portion of a very fine cross is within the church porch. The legend is on the edge, and reads, as usual, from the base upwards, hence the end of the legend only is left :-

(8) - - RIMS : INS : SUARTA x

The legend must have been a long one, and may possibly have been somewhat as follows:-

(N raised this cross to the memory of M his ;nother [or wife] (the daughter) of (G)rim the Black,"

IJ. There are two fragments, also in the porch, which clearly belong to one cross. It can be seen where the break occurred, and a triangular piece is missing, taking away from the edge, along which the runes are cut, a portion long enough to contain twelve or thirteen letters. The beginning of the inscription is lost, the first letters now left being - RTI, which must certainly be the last letters of the word [SUA]RTI, and it is easy enough to trace a family connection between this and the preceding cross, and to suppose that this also refers to "Grim the Black."

The legend is as follows .-

(9) [GRIMR : IN: SUA]RTI : RISTI: CRUS: ÞAN : AFT: RUMU [13 letters] IN x

RUMU is probably the name RUMUND, i.e., Hromund (Hrod-mund), and, in this case, it would be evidence of the date of the cross, and of the language wherein these cross monuments are written, for we meet with the same on the Distington cross below, the initial H before R having in Norway been dropped early in the XIIth century.

It is now possible to fill in the gap with some such words as :-


which would exaaly fill the vacant space-twelve letters and three stops ; we have little doubt that this was the legend, no other word denoting relationship fits so nicely in with the number of letters required.

In this inscription R occurs three times, and, in each instance, it is of peculiar shape, somewhat between the Latin B and the old black letter R.

As different readings have been given of the beginning of the existing part of the legend, and the runes are a little damaged, it is better to add that there is no doubt that RTI is the proper reading.

(io) These three fragments, with one other portion containing the legend CRUS : ÞAN : AFTIR : have been sometimes pieced together somewhat indiscriminately, so far as the inscriptions are concerned ; but it is clear from the nature of the slate, from the ornament, and from the form and size of the runes, that the arrangement given above is correct.


This is a fragment in the church, and though formerly mentioned as having the remains of an inscription in two parallel lines on the flat space beside the ornamentation, only a portion of one line is now preserved.

- N. But Onon wrote - -

This legend consisted of two clauses; the single letter N is now, however, the only survivor of the first part. RAITI would be the weak form for the strong form RAIT, and is not a mispelling for RAISTI, but refers to the runes and not to the cross.

As for Onon, we think it an un-Norse name, though it cannot be explained from Gaelic either. The only Norse name one can think of, is Onundr (Eanwind); it stands here in nominative case ; inflexive r might well be dropped, as is often the case on these Manx crosses but that t (d) should go too, is all but impossible.

Cumming gives FAIRÞUR : BR - for the legend on the other line, now broken off, which by an easy emendation we read FAUÞUR : BR[UþUR : SIN]. The stone would thus have been raised to an uncle on the father's side ; but all the names are lost, except the rune-writer's-Onon.


1. Fragment at Kirk Andreas:


" Thorwald raised this cross - -"

II. Cross in the Churchyard at Kirk Andreas:


Saitdulf the Black raised this cross to the memory of Arinbiorg his wife."

Sont (i.e., Sond) stands, we think, for Santh (i.e.,sooth, true). Besides here, this name is only once met with in the Icelandic Sagas, and never in Iceland.

The second letter in the word ÞONO is 1 and clearly = O. as it does on the fragment at Onchan, which Professor Munch rightly conjedured was O, and not B.*

III. In S. Germain's, Peel:

(14) - US. ÞENEI. IFTER. ASRIÞI. CUNU. SINO [4 strokes] URU-T - -
"(N raised) this (cr)oss to the memory of Asrith his wife -

In this inscription the word-divisions are marked by a single dot in the central line of the letters; and the i is dotted (f) as on the Mal-Lomchon cross at Kirk Michael. We would also notice the form Asrith, instead of the Danish and Icelandic Astrith with the spurious t.

IV. Fragment in the Government Office, found at the Rahyn, Baldwin:

Thorbiorn raised this cross - -"

* Manx Society, Vol XXII, P. 29, note.

All the names on these crosses are purely Scandinavian, yet as the legends are defective, the missing part may have contained some Gaelic names, in which case they would go with the following.


1. At Kirk Braddan:

Thorlaf Neaci, brother's son to Eab, raised this cross to the memory of Fiac his Son."

Between the B and S in the last word, a rune-R-has been scratched by a different, and (as it appears to us) by a modern hand. Thorlaf is Norse, the other names, Celtic or un-Norse.

"Odd raised this cross to the memory of Froca -

The inscription is perfect at the beginning, so that Professor Munch's suggestion that two letters might be missing, making it "Gaut," falls to the ground. Ut probably represents the Icelandic Odd, though this is not certain. The C in Froca, though slightly injured, is unmistakeable; this name occurs once in Gold-Thoris Saga, and once in an Icelandic place name (Fracka-nes), both in counties where the settlement was much mixed with Celtic elements. It is of a certainty no Norse name.

The continuation given by Mr. Cumming is not now to be deciphered on the cross. In fact, the strokes there seem to be almost aimless, and, if they ever meant anything, we can see from the existing marks that they certainly were not what he gives.


We have had crosses with purely Norse names and purely Celtic names, and with mixed names of Norse and Celtic; but this may be a bilingual legend in the true sense of the word :

(18) SUNR X RAISTI x IFT 13 letters] LUSINA
the son raised this after his (?)"

Running parallel with this, but reading in the opposite direction, is:


This is almost certainly the name of the mother to whom the cross was raised, and we can with certainty supply M[OPUR x SIN A]. The word of five letters in the former part of the legend * * * * LU, seems to describe a female relative, but it is neither [MA]LU nor [FRIP]LU, and it cannot be explained from the Norse language, for the preposition (after) militates against suggesting salu (soul). In the lady's name we recognise Myrgiol, or Mulrgheal, the name of an Irish king's daughter, recorded in the Icelandic Book of Settlement.

On another part of the stone is :


The fourth letter in the first word is F not C; the ridge between the two strokes has crumbled away, leaving the outline of one broad stroke. Anyhow, it is no Norse name nor word. If it be a Gaelic name, then the following word must needs be so as well. Yet as it stands it reads as if the legend were true Norse, ,and of wise counsel" (auk raþigr).

The O in Murciolu is 1 as on the Onon cross at Jurby ; where also the legend was written in parallel lines. The word divisions are marked by x. In this legend the words for "this cross" are wanting; the workman seems to have left the word division x to denote the cross. On the other side of the slab, where level surfaces presented themselves, stray words were written,


and on another part, on two level spots close together,

Thurith Carved the runes

In the name Thurith, the nominative termination R is dropped, as it is in the Norse of the XIIth and XIIIth centuries in nearly all female names ending in rip. Whether the work of this female scribe refers to the whole legend, or only to the pious legends inscribed on this face of the slab, we leave undecided.


This is the lower part of the shaft of a very tall cross. There is nothing lost of the beginning of the legend.


"But Osruth carved these runes."

The only doubtful letter in the word Osruth is but we distinctly saw traces of the right hand curve of the letter, the slate however having peeled away, leaving a depression within the curve. The other letters are quite certain, and there is really little doubt about the reading given above. This name is phonetically contracted from Osprup. Thruth is a female name both singly and in Its several compounds (Her-thruth, Arnthruth). Asthruth we never met with in Norse till here, but itis a true Norse name. Thus we have the nameof another lady scribe in ancient Mann.

This legend beginning with "But" must be the secondary clause, although nothing could have been carved below; there are slight traces of runes on the upper part after the X. The monumental inscription was probably first cut on the upper portion, and then space appearing below for the artist's name, advantage was taken of it, and so the existing legend, though standing first, begins with but."



(But) Horsecel betrayed his oath fellow under his faith."

The first letter is most probably an N- [1] N (but). There has been a double legend, whereof the first part is clean gone; the latter as usual beginning with en. It is certain that we must not read ER-er Oseell whom Aiiscel-as it has formerly been read; for the Manx language elsewhere uses es, never er; hence the name is Roscel=Hross-cell (Hross-cetill), which is the name of one of the Icelandic settlers. As in Rumund, the initial h is dropped.

Aiþsoga is phonetically written; it answers to Icelandic Eið-suara, oath swearer, oath- bound companion oath fellow, two persons bound by oath to some undertaking; it also denotes a liege man.

Here is an old Manx tragedy to solve, which, we fear is, and must be, a closed book.

Many philological and historical questions arise with reference to these inscriptions; we will, however, add but few observations in addition to those given above.

As to the vocabulary :-Owing partly to the stereotyped form of the legends (N raised this cross to the memory of M) it is very restricted. One visible sign of this is the fact that in the whole range of these Manx Runes there is not a single word containing H. Of course in old Norse this letter is found only at the beginning of a word or a word division. The only words in which H was possible in these inscriptions are the names Rumund and Roskel. It had, however, evidently been dropped out of the Manx language of that day. Hence the very form of the letter in the Manx alphabet is unknown. H is the form of the ancient Runes; * in later inscriptions ; and this latter form was probably in use here.

Again, the Manx Runes, unlike the old Danish and Swedish, have only one R, always R, both radical and inflexive; and by this alone the Manx Runes might be recognized at once, and even reclaimed if lost to the Island.

We have not translated the Runes into Normal Icelandic spelling, to save space; but we would remind the reader of the following:-

d = d, t : hence tufcal = Dufgal.
c = g, c, k : hence cirþi = gerþi.

Consonants are never doubled: hence ala = alla, toter = dótter.

Speaking of the inscriptions alone, and taking a general view of the whole number on the Manx crosses, we see no reason whatever to suppose that a wider interval than 6o years exists between the earliest and the latest; and this period we would place at the end of the XIIth century and the beginning of the XIIIth (1170/1230). The fashion of writing in runes on monuments to the dead was probably imported from Norway by some artist who settled in the Isle of Mann ; but it did not last long. But the crosses themselves are of Old English and Irish origin. The Scandinavians used to write on rough blocks of stone.

The names are mixed: of men 18 Norse to 14 Gaelic or un-Norse; of women 5 Norse to 3 Gaelic. It was manifestly a mixed population-- Norse and Gaelic. The speech, we believe, was all along bilingual. The masters would speak Norse; the law and all public transaaions on the Thing-wall and elsewhere would be in Norse: but the household servants, and many a day, we dare say, patriotic conservative women would speak Gaelic,-just as we find English and Gaelic within the same family in Iona and the Hebrides at the present day. At the separation from Norway in the XIIIth century, the root was cut off from under the Norse tongue, and the Gaelic obtained; just as under our eyes English is now supplanting the Manx-Gaelic.

Every reading given above is the result of careful, and in some cases repeated, examination of the inscriptions on the spot, between the 30th September and 6th October, 1886. We would only add that no blame can attach to Professor Munch for the defective readings in his text : he had never an opportunity of visiting the Isle of Mann, and had to trust solely to casts and copies made by others.


6th October, 1886.


Of PERSONS, (a) un-Norse, Gaelic, or otherwise.


Aþacan (Aedhacan), 3.
Crinaas, 5.

Dufgals (gen.), 1, 2.
Eabs (gen.), 16.
Fiac, 16.
Froca (acc.), 17.
Malbrigti, 3.
Mal-Fiaac, 5.
Mal-Lumgun, i.
(nickname), 16.
Onon, ii.
Ucifat (?),
Ufaac (O'Fiae, ?) 4, 5,
Caþ miul, 2
Mal-muru (acc.), 1.
Mur-ciolu (acc.). 18.

(b) Norse.

 Aþisl (i.e., Eadgils), 1. .
(Olave), 7.
(gen.), 4.
(gen.), 8, [9].
Gautr, 3, Gout (nom.), 4.
Liùt-ulbs (gen.), 6.
Oitlaibr (Olave), 6.
Rauþa (gen.) (nickname), 7.
Ros-cil (nom.), 20.
Rùmuitd (acc.), 9.
Sond-ulf (nom.), 13.
Suarta (gen.) (nickname), 8, 9, and of another person, 13,
(acc.), 6,
Utr (i.e., Oddr?), 17.
þùr-biaurn, 15.
þùr-libr (i.e., þorleifr), 16.
þùr-ulfs (gen.), 7.
þùr-valdr (i.e., þorvaldr), 12.
Arin-biaurg, 13
Asriþi(acc), 14.
Os-ruþr, 19.
þuriþ(nom.) (i.e., Thorrid), 18.
Culi (dat.), 4. Maun (dat.), 3.


Rare, of the Norse are: (Men) Aþisl (never in 1, Landnamaboc"), Liut-ulb, Roscil (once each in , Landnamaboc)," Sond-ulf (once in "Hakon Saga," ch. 57, in Norway, never in,' Landnamaboc)." (Women) Arin-biaurg ("Landnamaboc" has the contracted Arnbiorg), Os-rúþr (never in Landnamaboe)."

MEN, eighteen Norse to fourteen Gaelic or un-Norse.

WOMEN, five Norse to three Gaelic or un-Norse.

On his return to Oxford, Mr. VIGFUSSON briefly consulted his friend, Professor Rhys, regarding a few of the Gaelic names, taking down the following notes:-

KIRK MICHARL Cross.-Lomchu, gen. Lomchon, of Cill Lomchon in Ulster (Jany 9, see , Martyrolog. of Donegal," p. 4). Hence to translate, "Mal Lomchon raised

KIRK BRIDE.-Cionaidh Ua Cathmhaoil, gen. mase. (Four Masters, 967). Mac Cathmhaoil (Anglicized Mac Cowell) is very numerous in Four Masters.

Truian (i.e., Droian), not Cruian, would be the name, cp. Megg Droian in Ogam from Shetland, see Brash's Ogams, 356.

KIRK BRADDAN.-Neaci, cp. Ua Nioc, Four Masters, 1032 and 1128. Respecting Crinaas, though it cannot be explained from Gaelic, yet in West Scotland there are many Cr ... n names (Celtic Britain, P. 224).

Eabs cannot be identified.

Fiac, gen. Feic.: Ufaac = Ua Feic, the descendant of Fiaac.

Onon cannot be identified in Gaelic.

Ucifat, cp. Ugfadhan, a name in Four Masters, 904.



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